Key Concepts in Leisure Studies

  The book is now published -- details here

Notes and reviews


This page directs you to some notes on some of the articles I have been reading as preparation in writing my new book, and since handing over the manuscript. I have accessed many of these pieces electronically, and would like to thank the splendid Ms Wendy Evans of the College of St Mark and St John, and the journals staff of Sage Publications UK for helping me acquire these fascinating pieces so conveniently. I am also grateful to colleagues working in the Sports Development courses at the College for suggesting some of these materials.

The sets of notes are rather variable in size. Some are just summaries (although they are clearly my personal summaries), while others have some critical commentary as well. I provide them here in case you want to scan through before reading the real thing, as a quick guide to contents. Please go on and read the real thing for yourselves, otherwise you will be relying on me and my interests (which may be quite different from yours). You will also miss out a great deal of valuable stuff like literature reviews, extensive examples and details, and bibliographies which I do not even attempt to summarise in my notes.

I have placed each piece under a heading which expresses a 'key concept' as in my book. Some pieces appear under several headings. Some of the background classic reading related to these topics is also summarised in my list of online 'reading guides' connected to an earlier book on social theory

Adding leisure values
Armstrong, K. (1999)  'Nike's Communication with Black Audiences. A Sociological Analysis of Advertising Effectiveness via Symbolic Interactionism', in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, Vol 23, No 3: 266 - 86. (A bit preliminary and uncritical, but with some good examples of Nike advertisements)
Beech, J., Chadwick, S., and Tapp, A. (2000) 'Surfing in the premier league: key issues for football club marketers using the Internet', Managing Leisure, 5 (2): 51 — 64.
Bull, M. (2002)  'The Seduction Of Sound in Consumer Culture. Investigating Walkman desires', in Journal of Consumer Culture, Vol 2, No 1: 81-101. (Frustrating but ultimately insightful exploration of the pleasures of listening to Walkmans -- users gain an imaginative  but superficial control over their surroundings).
Cook, D.  (2001)  'Exchange Value as Pedagogy in Children's Leisure: Moral Panics in Children's Culture at Century's End', in Leisure Sciences, Vol 23: 81 - 98(Excellent discussion of  children as consumers, focusing on trading cards, Pokemon and Beanie Babies and the moral panics and paradoxes around them).
Hartley, J (2004)  'The "value chain of meaning"  and the new economy', in International Journal of Cultural Studies  7 (1): 129 - 141. (Brief speculative piece about value chains in (post)modern business and media -- and everywhere else --permitting cultural studies to havew a business output)
Helstein, M. (2003)  'That's Who I Want To Be. The Politics and Production of Desire Within Nike Advertising to Women', in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, Vol 27, No 3: 276 - 292. (An insightful piece with some rather heavyweight -- but manageable-- theoretical stuff. Tries to analyse Nike's appeal to women in terms of notions of emancipation and excellence embodied in the advertisements).
Lucas, S (2000) ‘Nike’s Commercial Solution: Girls, Sneakers, and Salvation’, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 35/2: 149—164 ( Close analysis of 3 Nike ads claiming to empower women but with contradictory elements)
Sundbo, J. and Darmer, P. (eds) (2008) Creating Experiences in the Experience Economy, Edward Elgar: Cheltenham (focuses on the activities which tourists and visitors engage in, via concepts like performance)
Westberg, K., Stavros, C., Wilson, B. (2008) ‘An examination of the impact of player transgressions on sponsorship b2b relationships’, International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship: 125—134. ( Reasonable study of how sponsore relate to player transgressions. All a bit obvious. Useful on methods though)

Articulation
Andrews, D  (2002)  'Coming to Terms with Cultural Studies', in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, Vol 26, No 1: 110 - 17. (An attempt to rework 'articulation' as a central concept to rescue Cultural Studies from its vulgarisers. It is defined so flexibly to avoid criticism that, with a little dogmatism and obfuscation,  it can explain everything as usual. See if you agree).
Wood, B (1998) 'Stuart Hall's Cultural Studies and the problem of hegemony', in British Journal of Sociology, Vol 49, 3: 399--414. (A useful summary of the oscillations and evasions in Hall's treatment of major concepts like 'hegemony' and 'articulation'. Nearly as good as Harris 1992!)

Authenticity
Adorno, T – W (1973) [1964] The Jargon of Authenticity, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. (Massive heavyweight and devastating critique of the concept and how it is used in German philosophy. Highly relevant to debates in Tourism)
Beezer, A.  (1995)  'Women and "adventure travel"  tourism', in New Formations, 21: 119 - 130. (Summarises some female travel writing, critiques male heroics in male travel writing in the C19th. Critiques modern adventure holidays and their search for postmodern forms of authenticity).
Carr, N. (2002)  'The Tourism - Leisure Behavioural Continuum', in Annals of Tourism Research, 29, 4: 972 - 986. (A study of whether the behaviour of tourists is similar to that of people doing leisure at home. Implications for the connections between Tourism and Leisure).
Chadwell, S.  (2004)  'Inventing That  "Old-Timey" Style. Southern Authenticity in O Brother Where Art Thou?', in Journal of Popular Film and Television, Vol 32, No.1: 2-10. (Discusses the types of and plays on authenticity, especially of the 'bluegrass' music, in  O Brother...).
Clifford, J.  'On Collecting Art and Culture' [originally a chapter in The Predicament of Culture] in During, S. (ed)  (1993) The Cultural Studies Reader, London: Routledge. (An example of this writer's famous critique of ethnography as well as a critical discussion of the historical location and social consequences of the 'discourse of authenticity').
Cohen, E.  (2002)  'Authenticity, Equity and Sustainability in Tourism', in Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Vol 10, No. 4: 267 - 76  (Critically analyses the concepts of 'authentic' and 'sustainable' tourism and shows how they can conflict).
Kane M and Tucker H  (2004)  'Adventure tourism. The freedom to play with reality', in Tourist Studies, 4 (3): 217 - 34. (A p/o study of adventure tourists and the stories they tell to talk up adventure and talk down being packaged)
Kelner, S  (2001)  'Narrative Construction of Authenticity in Pilgrimage Touring', a paper presented at the 96th Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, [online] http://cmjs.org/files/ASA2001.pdf ( A very clear discussion of different accounts of authenticity and a focus on how tourists and tour companies actually try to resolve the different senses through narratives)
Kingston, S  (1999)  'The Essential Attitude. Authenticity in Primitive Art, Ethnographic Performances and Museums', in Journal of Material Culture, Vol 4, No 3: 338 - 51 (Interesting discussion about how the concept of authenticity is impossible to avoid and paradoxical to manage. Examples include ethnographic performances for tourists, and museum displays).
Shepherd, R. (2002) 'Commodification, culture and tourism', in Tourist Studies, Vol 2, No 2: 183 - 201. (A critique of the implicit binaries in discussions of commodification, and an argument that the 'authentic' past can never be recaptured or separated from the present so we should not waste our time trying).
Terry-Chandler, F. (2000)  'Vanished Circumstance: Titanic, heritage, and film', in International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol 6, 1: 67-76. ( A useful critical account of the making of Titanic and why it had to compromise the authenticity of the reconstruction in the interests of audience involvement)
Tivers, J. (2002)  'Performing Heritage: the use of live "actors" in heritage presentations', in Leisure Studies, 21: 187 - 200. (A slightly unusual consideration of people who like to perform heritage re-enactments as opposed to visitors. They are keen on 'authenticity' too).
Winter, T. (2002)  'Angkor Meets Tomb Raider: setting the scene', in International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol 8, 4: 323 - 36. (Discussion of the contradictory effects of filming TR at the site and some implications for the management of new types of tourism).

Bodies
Abbas, A.  (2004)  'The embodiment of class, gender and age through leisure: a realist analysis of long distance running', in Leisure Studies 23 (2): 159 - 175 (slightly odd methodology but some good discussion of the ways in which social divisions are embodied in leisure practices like running.
Crossley, N.  (2005) ‘Mapping Reflexive Body Techniques: On Body Modification and Maintenance’, in Body and Society, 11(1): 1-35.(Discusses 'reflexive body techniques' and shows how they might be distributed and clustered. Uses multi-dimensional scaling to do this).
Crossley, N.  (2006) ‘In the Gym: Motives, Meaning and Moral Careers’, in Body and Society, 12(3) 23 – 50. (Explores motives and their 'vocabularies'. Criticises general theories. Emphasises bodily dimensions for gym attendance [in more ways than one])
Curry, D. (1993) 'Decorating the Body Politic', in New Formations, vol 19: 69 - 82. (Rather preliminary attempt to sketch out possible reasons for the popularity of tattooing and body piercing).
Fisher, J  (2002)  'Tattooing the Body, Marking Culture', in Body and Society, vol 8 (4):91-107. (Useful history and speculative account of tattooing as the symbolic reaction to the 'dis-ease' of the modern body)
Franklin, A  (2001)  'Neo-Darwinian Leisure, the Body and Nature: Hunting and Angling in Modernity', in Body and Society, Vol 7, No 4: 57 - 76 . ( Good account of sociological approaches to hunting and fishing. Tries to develop a 'sociology of the body' alternative. Pursues the issue of the real pleasures of bloodsports).
Gimlin, D.  (2007) ‘Accounting for Cosmetic Surgery in the USA and Great Britain: A Cross cultural Analysis of Women’s Narratives’, in Body and Society, 13 (1): 41-60. (Very interesting account of how women explain their decison to undergo cosmetic surgery, and how typical reasons reflect national contexts of health policy)
Grogan, S. and Richards, H.  (2002)  'Body Image. Focus Groups with Boys and Men', in Men and Masculinities, Vol 4, No 3: 219 - 32. (A study of male concerns about their bodies based on focus-group methods [which are defended strongly]. Men do care how they look!).
Hoogland, R. (2002)  'Fact and Fantasy: the body of desire in the age of post humanism', in Journal of Gender Studies, Vol 11, No 3: 213 - 231 ( Very thoughtful piece on what bodies actually are, and what role fantasy plays in embodiment).
Hughes, B. (2002) 'Bauman's Strangers: impairments and the invalidation of disabled people in modern and post-modern cultures', in Disability and Society, Vol 17, 5: 571 - 584. ( Discusses Bauman on the oppressive tendencies of modernity to understand the cultural roots of exclusion of the disabled. Asesses postmodern culture as a more promising celebration of difference).
Jefferson, T.  (1998)  'Muscle, "Hard Men" and "Iron" Mike Tyson: Reflections on Desire, Anxiety and the Embodiment of Masculinity', in Body and Society, Vol 4  (1): 77 - 98. (Explores 'hardness' via Tyson and some rather general psychodynamic theorising about emotional pathology and 'splitting/projection'. I have some doubts about whether 'hardness' is just pathological).
Maguire, J.  (2002)  'Body Lessons: fitness publishing and the cultural production of the fitness consumer', in International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 37/3 - 4: 449 - 464. (A continuation of Bourdieu's work on fitness and the tastes of various groups for it. Analyses the discourses of fitness magazines).
Patton, C  (2001)  '"Rock Hard"  Judging the Female Physique', in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, Vol 25, 2: 118 - 40. (A free-ranging discussion of female body-builders and how they manage and subvert gender identities. Discusses issues like 'the gaze' and  the active audience as well).
Pitts, V.  (1998) '"Reclaiming"  the Female Body: Embodied Identity Work, Resistance and the Grotesque', in Body and Society, Vol 4, no 3: 67 - 84. (Fascinating study of female scarifiers [people who carve scars into their bodies], exploring the politics of the acts and also the pleasures).
Pronger, B.  (1999)  'Outta My Endzone: Sport and the Territorial Anus', in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 23 (4): 373 - 89. ( Lively post-freudian analysis of the structure of desire and how it is realised in competitive sport) ( see also Cudney)
Sassatelli, R. (1999)  'Interaction Order and Beyond: A Field Analysis of Body Culture within Fitness Gyms', in Body and Society, Vol 5 (2 - 3): 227 - 48. (Perceptive if slightly heavy-handed use of Goffman to understand the specifics of interaction in fitness gyms and the way they permit participants to manage notions of the fit body).
Shilling, C.  (2010) 'Exploring the society – body –school nexus: theoretical and methodological issues in the study of body pedagogics'.  Sport, Education and Society 15 (2): 151-67 (Introductory critical review of the issues raised by new physical exercise and health initiatives in schools)
Sobel and Maurer (eds.) (1999)  Interpreting Weight:  The social management of fatness and thinness, Aldine de Gruyter:  New York ( essential discussion opf the meaning of obesity and how the obese manage and  resist criticism). Linked to a whole RLO here
Sweetman, P. (1999)  'Anchoring the (Postmodern) Self? Body Modification, Fashion and Identity', in Body and Society, Vol 5  (2 - 3): 51 - 76. (A thoughtful if a bit lengthy account of the significance of body modification as more than either fashion or simple anti-fashion -- it involves 'body projects')
Wacquant, L.  (1995)  'Pugs at Work: Bodily Capital and Bodily Labour Among Professional Boxers', in Body and Society, Vol 1, No. 1: 65 - 93. (A participant-observation study of professional boxers from one of Bourdieu's main colleagues. Lots of good stuff on practice and embodiment in habituses in concrete circumstances).
Wacquant, L. (2001)  'Whores, Slaves and Stallions: Languages of Exploitation and Accommodation among Boxers', in Body and Society, Vol 7 (2 - 3): 181 - 94. (More on professional boxers, especially how they reconcile themselves to exploitation)

Cultural Capital
Lareau, A and Weininger, E. (2003)  'Cultural capital in educational research: a critical assessment', in Theory and Society, Vol 32, Nos 5/6: 567 - 606. ( A reasonable summary of how the concept had been operationalised in educational research thus far).
Stempel, C  (2006)  'Gender, Social Class, and the Sporting Capital-Economic Capital Nexus', in Sociology of Sport Journal, 23: 273 - 292 ( A very interesting, quite technical, and thorough attempt to test empirically whether sport brings economic success through character-building or through impressing certain 'gatekeepers' and building networks with employers)
Wacquant, L.  (1995)  'Pugs at Work: Bodily Capital and Bodily Labour Among Professional Boxers', in Body and Society, Vol 1, No. 1: 65 - 93. (A participant-observation study of professional boxers from one of Bourdieu's main colleagues. Lots of good stuff on practice and embodiment in habituses in concrete circumstances).
Wilson, T.  (2002)  'The Paradox of Social Class and Sports Involvement: the roles of cultural and economic capital' in  International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 37/1: 5 - 16. (A study of US social class relations to sport, both general participation rates and participation in particular 'prole' sports. Uses US data and notions of economic and cultural capital derived from Bourdieu, and shows the latter is important. NB Gender differences emerge here as insignificant).

Disciplinary Apparatuses
Abbas, A.  (2004)  'The embodiment of class, gender and age through leisure: a realist analysis of long distance running', in Leisure Studies 23 (2): 159 - 175 (slightly odd methodology but some good discussion of the ways in which social divisions are embodied in leisure practices like running)
Bramham, P. (2003) 'Boys, Masculinities and PE', in Sport, Education and Society, vol 8, No. 1: 57 - 71 (Some useful empirical work on how boys reproduce and resist dominant notions of masculinity in their PE lessons and sports activities).
Collins, L.  (2002)  'Working out the Contradictions. Feminism and Aerobics' in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, Vol 26, No 1: 85 - 109. (Very informative piece on how feminists resist oppressive values in aerobics and learn to cope. Considerable general implications for all studies of 'disciplinary apparatuses')
Light, R. and Kirk, D. (2000) 'High School Rugby, the Body and the Reproduction of Hegemonic Masculinity', in Sport, Education and Society, Vol. 5, No. 2:163 - 176. (Tries out Bourdieu and Foucault on 'hegemonic masculinity', grounded in a case study of the beastliness of rugby training and playing).
Maguire, J.  (2002)  'Body Lessons: fitness publishing and the cultural production of the fitness consumer', in International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 37/3 - 4: 449 - 464. (A continuation of Bourdieu's work on fitness and the tastes of various groups for it. Analyses the discourses of fitness magazines).

Disneyfication
Faherty, V.  (2001)  'Is the mouse sensitive? A study of race, gender, and social vulnerability in Disney animated films', in Studies in Media and Information Literacy Education, 1 (3). Also on line at http://www.utpjournals.com/simile (A neat content analysis (for a change) of Disney films. Limited but a good idea).
Hebdige, D.  (2003)  'Dis-Gnosis: Disney and the Re Tooling of Knowledge, Art, Culture, Life, Etc.', in Cultural Studies, Vol 17, No 2: 150--167. (Witty and arty critique of Disneyfication and its colonisation of the real world via infantilism).
King, M. (1996)  'The Audience in the Wilderness', in Journal of Popular Film and Television, Vol 24, No 2: 60 - 8. ( An account of the Disneyfication of nature and animals via an examination of the 'True-Life Adventure' series. Classic Disney ideology-critique).
Marin, L  (1977)  'Disneyland: a Degenerate Utopia', in Glyph (1): 50 - 66  (A classic early structuralist account of Disney as a closed ideological system, much cited in Eco's and Baudrillard's subsequent remarks --which you can read here)
Wayne, M.  (2003) 'Post-Fordism, monopoly capitalism, and Hollywood's media industrial complex', in International Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol 6, No 1: 82 - 103. (This article attempts to rescue marxist theory from the challenge of postfordist theories, discusses Hollywood, and Disney in particular).

Ecstasy [including spirituality]
Brymer, E and Gray, T. (2009) 'Dancing with nature: rhythm and harmony in extreme sport participation', Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 9: 2, 135 — 149 (Oh dear --lyrical and silly study of extreme sports as delivering nice soft stances towards nature. Heavy 'reading'of interview transcripts follows)
Critcher, C.  (2000) '"Still raving": social reaction to Ecstasy', in Leisure Studies, vol 19: 145 - 162. (Pretty comprehensive review and useful attempts to explain rave culture. Also summarises 'moral  panics' and 'risk society' approaches more generally).
Dillon, K and Tait, J  (2000)  'Spirituality and Being in the Zone in Team Sports: A Relationship?', in Journal of Sport Behaviour, 23(2): 91--100. (A positivist study correlating scores on a spirituality test and an 'in the zone test')
Elliott, N. (2003)  'Working Papers. The Spirituality of Snowboarding: A Research Project', Working Paper No. 8, available from http://www.lhds.uce.ac.uk/research/pdfs/Paper%208.pdf   A thoughtful discussion by an ordained priest and snowboarder of the temsions in 'soul-riding')
Glover, T.  (2003) 'Regulating the Rave Scene: Exploring the Policy Alternatives of Government', in Leisure Sciences, Vol 25: 307 - 325. (An interesting review from a North American (US and Canada) perspective. Considers policy options and supports 'harm reduction' rather than prohibition).
Mortlock, C. (2001) Beyond Adventure. Reflections from the wilderness: an inner journey, Milnthorpe: Cicerone Press. (gooey New Age-y spiritual stuff from a major advocate of Outdoor Adventure)
Peretti-Watel, P  (2003)  'Neutralisation theory and the denial of risk: some evidence from cannabis use among French adolescents', in British Journal of Sociology, Vol 54, No 1: 21 - 42. (French study, extending the work of Sykes and Matza on delinquency and Becker on cannabis use. Adds discussion of techniques to deny risk. Some reference to large quantitative study of drug users).

Education as Leisure
Harris (2009) 'Work and Leisure in Higher Education', unpublished, paper given at the BSA Annual Conference, Cardiff (It's me!!)
Jones, I and Symon, G.  (2001)  'Lifelong learning as serious leisure: policy, practice and potential', in Leisure Studies 20: 269 - 83. (A useful but rather functionalist and limited argument for post-compulsory education as serious leisure).
Prichard, C. and Willmott, H. (1996) 'Just how managed is the McUniversity?', unpublished, a paper given at the 'The Dilemmas of Mass Higher Education' conference, Staffordshire University, April 10-12, 1996. (A critical account of Macdonaldization as applied to universities. Managers cannot dominate universities, although the trends are all that way).
Ritzer, G. (1996)  'McUniversity in the Post modern Consumer Society', in Quality in Higher Education, Vol 2, No 3: 185 - 99 (A trenchant examination and critique of trends in university organisation. A response to Prichard and Willmott. A clearly transitional piece moving from Weber into marxism and Baudrillard).
Stebbins, R.  (2000)  'The Extraprofessional Life: Leisure, Retirement and Unemployment', in Current Sociology, 48(1): 1 -- 18. ( A useful summary of 'flow'  and 'serious leisure', including education, and a commentary on 'extension patterns' affecting professionals).

Effects Analysis
Anderson, C., and Dill, K.  (2000)  'Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life', in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 78, no. 4: 772 - 790. (A substantial psychological study of the effects of video games on aggression, involving both a 'real-life' correlational approach and a laboratory experiment.  Argues there is cause for concern, but results are complex and mixed).
Buckingham, D. (2003)  'Media Education and the End of the Critical Consumer', in Harvard Educational Review, Vol 73, No 3. (An insightful account of the effects of postmodern media on children as consumers and the contrasts with media education)
Gentile, D., Lynch, P., Ruh Linder, J., Walsh, D.  (2004)  'The effects of violent video game habits on adolescent hostility, aggressive behaviors, and school performance', in Journal of Adolescence, Vol 27, No 1: 5 - 22. (A classic psychological study, based on Anderson and Dill, but investigating effects on school behaviours this time. The usual combination of statistical tests, strong opinion, and cautious findings).
Greer, J., Hardin, M., and Homan, C. (2009) ‘”Naturally” Less Exciting? Visual Production of Men’s and Women’s Track and Field Coverage During the 2004 Olympics’, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media,  53(2):  173–189. (Includes use of a particular model to analyse camera shots)
Kim, H. and Richardson, S  (2003)  'Motion Picture Impacts on Destination Images', in Annals of Tourism Research, Vol 30, No 1: 216 - 37. (A good review of some of the literature on the impact of films and a systematic but rather limited study involving just one film).
Sterkenberg, J, and Knoppers, A  (2004)  'Dominant Discourses About Race/Ethnicity and Gender in Sport Practice and Performance', in International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 39 (3): 301 - 21 (An analysis of media discourses about sport, gender and 'race' and a comparison with respondents's discourses to see if there is any hegemonic effect)
Vandewater, E, Shim, M., Caplovitz, A (2004)  'Linking obesity and activity level with children's television and video game use', in Journal of Adolescence, Vol 27: 71 - 85. (Statistical study showing disappointingly weak, unusually complex,  or even absent relations between watching TV and playing video games and childhood obesity in the USA. The authors conclude there just is no 'magic bullet' to cure obesity).

Escape [incl {outdoor} adventure and risk]
Bellaby, P and Lawrenson, D. (2001)  'Approaches to the risk of riding motorcycles: reflections on the problem of reconciling statistical risk assessment and motorcyclists' own reasons for riding', in The Sociological Review: 368 - 88 [no volume or issue numbers in this electronic copy]. (Discussion of  the contrast between official statistical accounts of risk and those of the motorcyclists themselves. A general model of the social dimensions of risk ensues).
Ferrell, J, Milovanavic, D. and Lyng, S (2001)  'Edgework, media practices, and the elongation of meaning : A theoretical ethnography of the Bridge Day events', in Theoretical Criminology 5 (2): 177 - 202. (BASE jumping as 'edgework' as in Lyng's classic, but also a disucssion of the role of mass media in constructing subcultures and being used by them to understand their own ecstatic moments)
Goldenberg, M, McAvoy, L and Klenovsky, D  (2005)  'Outcomes from the Components of an Outward Bound Experience', in Journal of Experiential Education, 28 (2): 123 - 146. ( An unusual technique to assess outcomes of a US OB -- interesting but with some flaws).
Holyfield, L. (1999)  'Manufacturing Adventure The Buying and Selling of Emotions', in Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 28 (1): 3 - 32. (Despite its uncompromising title, this is actually quite a sympathetic account of manufactured adventure -- commercial whitewater rafting. It also contains useful discussions of risk and adventure, and comments on issues of emotion and ethnography)
Jones, C., Hollenhorst, S., Perna, F. (2003)  'An Empirical Comparison of the Four-Channel Flow Model and Adventure Experience Paradigm', in Leisure Sciences, Vol. 25: 17 - 31. (An over-technical piece but with some useful material on operationalising and actually testing for 'flow').
Journal of Consumer Culture (2001)  'Interview with Ulrich Beck', in Journal of Consumer Culture, Vol 1, 2: 261 - 77. (Beck outlines his criticisms of postmodernism and offers an account of 'second modernity' instead [= follow up to risk society]).
Kane M and Tucker H  (2004)  'Adventure tourism. The freedom to play with reality', in Tourist Studies, 4 (3): 217 - 34. (A p/o study of adventure tourists and the stories they tell to talk up adventure and talk down being packaged)
Le Breton, D.  (2004)  'The Anthropology of Adolescent Risk-taking Behaviours', in Body and Society, 10 (1): 1-15. (Rather basic, general and functionalist account of risk taking as a form of seeking meaning and social integration)
Loeffler, T (2004) ‘A Photo Elicitation Study of the Meanings of Outdoor Adventure Experiences’, in Journal of Leisure Research, vol. 36 (4): 536 -56. (Lots of work summarised on the claimed experiences with an interesting methodology)
Lyng, S. (1990) 'Edgework: A Social Psychological Analysis of Voluntary Risk Taking', in American Journal of Sociology, 95 (4): 851 - 86. ( Not recent but a classic attempt to explain risky behaviour in sociological terms. Separated from 'flow'. Quite a good account of the actual pleasurable experiences). ALSO -- try the RLO (Multi-media presentation) on this. NB it only runs on Internet Explorer
Kjřlsrřd, L. (2003) ‘Adventure Revisited: On Structure and Metaphor in Specialized Play’, in Sociology, Vol. 37, No. 3: 459—76. (An account of the role of 'adventure' (broadly defined) in developing self-identity and offering other aspects of adult play).
Le Breton, D. (2000) 'Playing Symbolically with Death in Extreme Sports', in Body and Society, Vol 6, No. 1: 1--11. (Lyrical  descriptions of the ecstatic pleasures of extreme sports and ordeals. Discusses 'flow', but prefers his own [Durkheimian?] account to do with relating egos to constraints).
Natalier, K. (2001)  'Motorcyclists' interpretations of risk and hazard', in Journal of Sociology, Vol 37, No 1: 65 - 80. (Australian study of how bikers sideline official definitions of risk and maintain their own 'lived reality'. Some [unusual] critical comments about biker culture).
Rossiter P  (2007)  'Rock Climbing: On Humans, Nature, and Other Nonhumans', in Space and Culture, 10 (2): 292 - 305. (A mind-boggling rethink of human-nature relations using Actor-Network Theory. Excellent on the pleasures of rock climbing too)
Segrave, J.  (2000)  'Sport as Escape', in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 24 (1): 61 -- 77.  ( Rather good if overcooked discussion based on literary sources about the ecstatic and religious pleasures of sport -- and the dangers of 'infantilism')

Ethnography (incl autoethnography)
Ahmed, S
(2000) 'Who Knows?  Knowing Strangers and Strangeness', Australian Feminist Studies 15 (31): 49-68.(useful debate about feminist pst-colonial ethnography)
Anderson, L  (2006) 'Analytic Autoethnography', in Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 35 (4): 373 - 95.  (A useful discussion of autoethnography which extends it aways from the usual concerns with personal emotions)
Bennett, A  (2002) 'Researching youth culture and popular music: a methodological critique', in British Journal of Sociology, Vol 53, 3: 451 - 66. (One of the critiques is of gramscian work on music and youth culture as offering only a limited ethnographic understanding. Later work, including Thornton and Malbon is equally flawed methodologically).
Berkowitz, D  (2006)  'Consuming Eroticism. Gender Performances and Presentations in Pornographic Establishments', in Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 35 (5): 583 -- 606. (A flawed ethnographic study but one revealing the flexibility of gender performances)
Bourdieu, P. (2000)  'Making the economic habitus. Algerian workers revisited', in Ethnography, Vol 1, No 1: 17 - 41. (Actual ethnography demonstrated here, with its capacities to make the familiar strange and vice-versa. The article discusses the changes in Kabylian [Algerian] traditional society after colonisation in order to illustrate just how historically specific modern economic rationality really is).
Clifford, J.  'On Collecting Art and Culture' [originally a chapter in The Predicament of Culture] in During, S. (ed)  (1993) The Cultural Studies Reader, London: Routledge. (An example of this writer's famous critique of ethnography, which parallels that of Clough).
Clough, P.  (2001)  'On the Relationship of the Criticism of Ethnographic Writing and the Cultural Studies of Science', in Cultural Studies -- Critical Methodologies, 1 (2): 240 - 270 ( A reprise of the famous critique of ethnographic writing based on postructuralist feminism).
Collinson, J  (2005)  'Emotions, Interaction and the Injured Sporting Body', in International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 48 (2): 221 - 40. (An autoethnographic piece reflecting on the importance of emotions in recovering from injury and contributing to the sociology of emotions more generally)
Denison, J  (2006)  'The Way We Ran: Re imagining Research and the Self', in  Journal of Sport and Social Issues 30 (4): 333 - 39. (Brief and simple attempt at a polyvocal text. Not very inspiring writing itself, despite an injunction to other writers to be creative, passionate, transformative etc)
Denzin, N  (2006)  'Analytic Autoethnography, or Deja-Vu all Over Again', in Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 35 (4): 419 - 28 (A reply to Anderson. Useful points written in an odd 'poetic' way).
Ellis, C and Bochner, A  (2006)  'Analysing Analytic Autoethnography An Autopsy', in Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 35 (4): 429 - 49. (An autoethnographic reply to Anderson, written as a conversation. A few central points but I found it naff, self-aggrandising and sentimental, I am afraid).
Gannon, S.  (2006)  'The (Im)Possibilities of Writing the Self-Writing: French Poststructural Theory and Autoethnography', in Cultural Studies <=> Critical Methodologies, 6 (4): 474 - 95. (A very learned and fairly clear comparison of poststructuralist writing on the self with the naive realism of autoethnography, especially its 'evocative' kind)
Harper, D.  (2003)  'Framing photographic ethnography. A case-study' in Ethnography, 4 (2):  241 - 66 . (An insightful account of using photographs to do critical ethnography).
Jones, R.  (2006)  'Dilemmas, Maintaining  "Face," and Paranoia An Average Coaching Life', in Qualitative Inquiry, 12 (5): 1012 - 1021 (An autoethnographic account of a 'dysfluent' coach and how to present an authoritative self. Close links to Goffman).
Pavlidis, A & Fullagar, S (2013) Narrating the multiplicity of “derby grrrl”: Exploring intersectionality and the dynamics of affect in roller derby, Leisure Sciences, Volume 35, Issue 5 pp. 422-437 (ethnographic study denying simple categories including 'resistance' and 'subculture'.
Pink, S.  (2007) ‘Walking with Video’, in Visual Studies 22 (3). (An influential piece arguing for both visual ethnography and the 'performative turn'. Also embroiled in the 'slow leisure' movement)
Pink, S.  (2008) ‘An Urban Tour: the sensory sociability of ethnographic place – making’, Ethnography 9 (2). (Pretty similar to the above, but this time after a walk around Mold in Wales with some Slow City activists. I have added a link to the online Pink 2008 piece where she walks around Diss in Norfolk and comes to remarkably similar conclusions about everything)
Purdy, L., Potrac, P., and Jones, R.  (2008) ‘Power, consent and resistance: an autoethnography of competitive rowing’, in Sport, Education and Society, 13 (3): 319 – 36.(An unusual attempt to use autoethnographic writing to comment on issues of power and resistance between coaches and athletes)
Shilling, C. & Bunsell, T.  (2009) 'The female body builder as a gender outlaw'.  Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise,1 (2): 141-59. (Shilling provides some of the theory so this is 'theoretically-informed ethnography')
Stanton, G. (2000)  'The way of the body. Paul Stoller's search for sensuous ethnography', in European Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol 3 No 2: 259 - 77 (Describes the work of a famous experimental ethnographer trying to break with westernised and textual modes of understanding).
Stoller, P (2002)  'Crossroads. Tracing African paths on New York City streets', in Ethnography, Vol 3, No 1: 35 - 62.  (An example of ethnographic work on West African traders and the social and economic complexities they inhabit. Argues for epistemological and methodological flexibility).
Wacquant, L.  (1995)  'Pugs at Work: Bodily Capital and Bodily Labour Among Professional Boxers', in Body and Society, Vol 1, No. 1: 65 - 93. (A participant-observation study of professional boxers from one of Bourdieu's main colleagues. Lots of good stuff on practice and embodiment in habituses in concrete circumstances).
Willis, P. and Trondman, M. (2000)  'Manifesto for Ethnography', in Ethnography, Vol 1 (1): 5 - 16  (Opens a new journal for ethnography with a brief defence of the technique against some modern criticisms and a plea for more theoretically informed ethnography).

Fantasy
Hoogland, R. (2002)  'Fact and Fantasy: the body of desire in the age of post humanism', in Journal of Gender Studies, Vol 11, No 3: 213 - 231. (Discusses different theories of fantasy from Freud and Deleuze/Guattari. Insists on a central role for fantasy in identity formation and cultural innovation).
Marshall, J  (2003)  'The Sexual Life of Cyber-Savants', in The Australian Journal of Anthropology, Vol 15, No 2: 229 - 48. (Account of the contradictions and pleasures, the interaction of fantasy and authenticity and of offline and online worlds in 'netsex' via interaction in a MOO).
Segrave, J.  (2000)  'Sport as Escape', in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 24 (1): 61 -- 77.  ( Rather good if overcooked discussion based on literary sources about the ecstatic and religious pleasures of sport -- and the dangers of 'infantilism')
Smith, C. (2002)  '" They're ordinary people, not Aliens from the Planet Sex!'": the mundane excitements of pornography for women', in Journal of Mundane Behaviour, Vol 3, 1. [online: http//www.mundanebehaviour.org/issues/v3n1/csmith.htm](A discussion of the 'ordinary' uses of pornography, to break from the polarities offered by conventional debates)

Figurationalism
Dunning, E and Waddington, I.  (2003) 'Sport as a Drug and Drugs in Sport', in International Review for the Sociology of Sport, vol 38 No. 3: 351 - 368. (An exploratory piece, showing the relevance of work in the figurationalist tradition. Also useful for its scepticism about policies promoting participation in sport as minimising  illegal activities among the young).
Tuck, J. (2003) 'The Men in White. Reflections on Rugby Union, the Media and Englishness', in International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Vol 38, No 2: 177 - 199. (An analysis of the media coverage of the England rugby team during the 1995 World Cup -- so lots of comparisons to be made with the 2003 success. Uses figurational and marxist approaches [controversially] combined).

Food
Fantasia, R. (1995)  'Fast Food in France', in Theory and Society, Vol 24, No 2: 201 - 43. (An account of accommodation and resistance - see also Ram and Traphagen & Brown below -- but also a good account of the cultural appeal of Macs as American, progressive etc for the young petit bourgeoisie and adolescents).
James, A. (1990)  'The good, the bad and the delicious: the role of confectionery in British society', in The Sociological Review, Vol 38, No 4: 366 - 85.(An update of a famous piece on the semiotics of food: confectionery is socially and culturally useful because of its ambiguous location between food and non-food. A bit dated?)
Ram, U. (2004)  'Glocommodification: How the Global Consumes the Local -- McDonald's in Israel', in Current Sociology, Vol 52, No.1: 11 - 31. (Good examples of combinations of local and global in fast food. Overall conclusion is that commodification dominates).
Silva, E.  (2000)  'The cook, the cooker and the gendering of the kitchen', in Sociological Review, 48  (4): 612 - 629. (Discussion of the effects of technological change in cooking on gender relations -- and vice versa. Uses actor network theory and post-structuralist feminism).
Traphagen, J. and Brown, L  (2002)  'Fast food and intergenerational commensality in Japan: new styles and old patterns', in Ethnology, Vol 41, No 2: 119 - 34. (More of a 'transnational' account of Japanese localisation of US fast food, which denies globalized McDonaldization, unlike Ram. Interesting case studies).
Valentine, G. (2002)  'In-corporations: Food, Bodies and Organizations', in Body and Society, Vol 8, No 2: 1 - 20  (Studies food as a mediator of interaction in workplaces, via 'Actor Network Theory'. Five case studies indicate the complex possibilities).

Functionalism
Blackshaw, T. and Long, J. (2005)  'What's the Big Idea? A Critical Exploration of the Concept of Social Capital and its Incorporation into Leisure Policy Discourse', Leisure Studies, 24 (3): 239 - 58. (Good critical discussion of current views of social capital and its links with leisure policy. Summarises Bourdieu's version of social capital).
Jones, I and Symon, G.  (2001)  'Lifelong learning as serious leisure: policy, practice and potential', in Leisure Studies 20: 269 - 83. (A useful but rather functionalist and limited argument for post-compulsory education as serious leisure).
Prideaux, S (2001)  'New Labour, Old Functionalism: The Underlying Contradictions of Welfare Reform in the US and the UK', in Social Policy and Administration, Vol 35, No 1: 85 -115.(Pursues links between functionalist conceptions and social policy under Reagan and New Labour, just as I argue in the book, so it must be right. Mostly considers welfare policies but there are general implication for Third Way thinking and leisure policy)

Gazes
MacCannell, D  (2001) 'Tourist agency', in Tourist Studies, Vol 1 (1): 23 - 37. (Critique of Urry on the gaze -- bit exaggerated. Advocates a critical commentating capacity for tourists as a way to combat domination by the gaze)
Mulvey, L. (Classic [old] work here on the male gaze -- 3 pieces by Mulvey summarised and discussed).
Patton, C  (2001)  '"Rock Hard"  Judging the Female Physique', in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, Vol 25, 2: 118 - 40. (A free-ranging discussion of female body-builder and how they manage and subvert gender identities. Discusses issues like 'the gaze' and  the active audience as well).
Perkins, H., and Thorns, D. (2001)  'Gazing or Performing? Reflections on Urry's Tourist Gaze in the Context of Contemporary Experience in the Antipodes', in International Sociology, Vol 16, No 2: 185 - 204. (Makes some useful criticisms of the undue passivity implied by the term ' gaze' to describe tourist experiences. New Zealand case study).
Wearing, B and Wearing, S  (1996)  'Refocusing the tourist experience: the flâneur and the choraster', in Leisure Studies, Vol 15: 229 - 43. (Makes a strong case for feminist deconstruction of leading concepts in tourism research including the flȃneur and the gaze. Uses the notion of the chora to stress alternative conceptions emphasising human interactions and existential openness).

Gender
Attwood, F.  (2002)  'A very British carnival: Women, sex and transgression in Fiesta magazine', in European Journal of Cultural Studies, 5 (1) 91 - 105. (Offers detailed analysis of a soft-porn British magazine to test readings of pornography as male power or as transgressive. Identifies peculiar British features of lingering guilt and anxiety despite some male domination).
Attwood F  (2005)  '"Tits and ass and porn and fighting". Male heterosexuality in magazines for men', in International Journal of Cultural Studies, 8 (1): 83 -- 100.(Brilliant title! A review of men's and women's magazines including 'soft porn' and lifestyle to examine how bodies and sex are represented)
Beezer, A.  (1995)  'Women and "adventure travel"  tourism', in New Formations, 21: 119 - 130. (Summarises some female travel writing, critiques male heroics in male travel writing in the C19th. Critiques modern adventure holidays and their search for postmodern forms of authenticity).
Berkowitz, D  (2006)  'Consuming Eroticism. Gender Performances and Presentations in Pornographic Establishments', in Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 35 (5): 583 -- 606. (A flawed ethnographic study but one revealing the flexibility of gender performances)
Bernstein, A   (2002)  'Is It Time for a Victory Lap? Changes in the media coverage of women in sport', in  International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 37/(3 - 4): 415 - 28. (Analysis of the depiction of women's sport on US TV -- more women appear, but still in a stereotyped way).
Blackman, L. (2011) Affect, Performance and Queer Subjectivities, Cultural Studies 25 (2): 183-99. (Queer performance as revealing communal aspects of queer subjectivity)
Bramham, P. (2003) 'Boys, Masculinities and PE', in Sport, Education and Society, vol 8, No. 1: 57 - 71 (Some useful empirical work on how boys reproduce and resist dominant notions of masculinity in their PE lessons and sports activities).
Burgess, I., Edwards, A., and Skinner, J.  (2003)  'Football Culture in an Australian School Setting: The Construction of Masculine Identity', in Sport, Education and Society, Vol 8, No.2: 199 - 212  (A very useful discussion of hegemonic masculinity and the role of sport. (Too?) pessimistic version of hegemony).
Chery, M-C, Borysewicz, B and Caldwell, M  (2001)  'Shaping Presentation of Self in Everyday Life: gym bunnies and musclemen' [online] http://smib.vuw.ac.nz:8081/WWWWW/ANZMAC2001/anzmac/AUTHORS/pdfs/chery.p. (Really about building a model to incorporate all the main [psychological] reasons for particpation in gyms. Picks up on gender but finds other modifying factors including 'individual 'ones and factors such as frequent attendance)
Collins, L.  (2002)  'Working out the Contradictions. Feminism and Aerobics' in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, Vol 26, No 1: 85 - 109. (Very informative piece on how feminists resist oppressive values in aerobics and learn to cope. Considerable general implications for all studies of 'disciplinary apparatuses')
Deem, R. (1999) 'How do we get out of the ghetto? Strategies for research on gender and leisure for the 21st century', in Leisure Studies, 18, 3: 161 - 77. (What role is there for feminist analysis in the future? How can the problems and paradoxes be avoided?).
Dellinger, K  (2004)  'Masculinities in  "Safe"  and  "Embattled"  Organizations. Accounting for Pornographic and Feminist Magazines', in Gender and Society, 18 (5): 545-- 566. (Interesting analysis of the organizational practices of accountants (no, really!) as they 'do 'gender in different work environments. Men are more likely to cooperate with women when their masculinity is 'safe' --but still emphasise class differences).
Elling, A., De Knop, P., and Knoppers, A. (2003) 'Gay/Lesbian Sport Clubs and Events. Places of Homo-Social Bonding and Cultural Resistance?', in International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 38/4: 441 - 56. (A critical discussion of the contradictory implications of using sport to integrate sexual minorities in Holland, followed by a case-study of members of gay/lesbian volleyball clubs to pin down reasons for joining).
Free, M. and Hughson, J.  (2003)  'Settling Accounts with Hooligans. Gender Blindness in Football Supporter Subculture Research', in Men and Masculinities, Vol 6, No 2: 136 - 155. (Insightful feminist re-reading of some accounts of football supporting aimed at restoring the significance of gender relations).
Gantz, W., Zheng, W., Bryant,  P., and Potter, R (2006) ‘Sports Versus All Comers: Comparing TV Sports Fans With Fans of Other Programming Genres’, in Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 50(1): 95—118.(Thorough psychological study of fans and their viewing patterns, comparing sports fans and fans of other genres. Gender emerges as an important variable)
Greer, J., Hardin, M., and Homan, C. (2009) ‘”Naturally” Less Exciting? Visual Production of Men’s and Women’s Track and Field Coverage During the 2004 Olympics’, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media,  53(2):  173–189. (Shows TV coverage even of 'gender-neutral events in 2004 Olympics favour men. Uses an interesting model for analysis of visuals. Bit over-keen on masculine hegemony?)
Grogan, S. and Richards, H.  (2002)  'Body Image. Focus Groups with Boys and Men', in Men and Masculinities, Vol 4, No 3: 219 - 32. (A study of male concerns about their bodies based on focus-group methods [which are defended strongly]. Men do care how they look!)
Helstein, M. (2003)  'That's Who I Want To Be. The Politics and Production of Desire Within Nike Advertising to Women', in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, Vol 27, No 3: 276 - 292. (An insightful piece with some rather heavyweight -- but manageable-- theoretical stuff. Tries to analyse Nike's appeal to women in terms of notions of emancipation and excellence embodied in the advertisements).
Jefferson, T.  (1998)  'Muscle, "Hard Men" and "Iron" Mike Tyson: Reflections on Desire, Anxiety and the Embodiment of Masculinity', in Body and Society, Vol 4  (1): 77 - 98. (Explores 'hardness' via Tyson and some rather general psychodynamic theorising about emotional pathology and 'splitting/projection'. I have some doubts about whether 'hardness' is just pathological).
Kivell, P. and Kleiber, D.  (2000)  'Leisure in the Identity Formation of Lesbian/ Gay Youth: Personal, but Not Social', in Leisure Sciences, 22: 215 - 232. (Interviews some gay and lesbian adolescents and finds leisure is interpreted for personal implications. Leisure unable to become a full commitment).
Li, W., Lee, A. and Solmon, M.  (2006) Gender Differences in Beliefs About the Influence of Ability and Effort in Sport and Physical Activity, in Sex Roles,  54(1/2): 147—156 ( Weird scientific psychology stuff taking various scales about beliefs in the balance of ability and effort and seeing if the genders vary --after a lot of hoo-hah, they don't seem to vary very much)
Light, R. and Kirk, D. (2000) 'High School Rugby, the Body and the Reproduction of Hegemonic Masculinity', in Sport, Education and Society, Vol. 5, No. 2:163 - 176. (Tries out Bourdieu and Foucault on 'hegemonic masculinity', grounded in a case study of the beastliness of rugby training and playing).
ewdewdPatton, C  (2001)  '"Rock Hard"  Judging the Female Physique', in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, Vol 25, 2: 118 - 40. (A free-ranging discussion of female body-builder and how they manage and subvert gender identities. Discusses issues like 'the gaze' and  the active audience as well).
Lucas, S (2000) ‘Nike’s Commercial Solution: Girls, Sneakers, and Salvation’, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 35/2: 149—164 ( Close analysis of 3 Nike ads claiming to empower women but with contradictory elements)
Pavlidis, A & Fullagar, S (2013) Narrating the multiplicity of “derby grrrl”: Exploring intersectionality and the dynamics of affect in roller derby, Leisure Sciences, Volume 35, Issue 5 pp. 422-437
Pavlides A and Fullagar S (2014) 'The pain and pleasure of roller derby: Thinking through affect and subjectification'.  International Journal of Cultural Studies: 1-27. (as with the above, an analysis of a women's sporting subculture using new approaches -- affect,embodiment and poststructuralist feminism. Optimistic, about negotiating female identities)
Pitts, V.  (1998) '"Reclaiming"  the Female Body: Embodied Identity Work, Resistance and the Grotesque', in Body and Society, Vol 4, no 3: 67 - 84. (Fascinating study of female scarifiers [people who carve scars into their bodies], exploring the politics of the acts and also the pleasures).
Pronger, B.  (1999)  'Outta My Endzone: Sport and the Territorial Anus', in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 23 (4): 373 - 89. ( Lively post-freudian analysis of the structure of desire and how it is realised in competitive sport) ( see also Cudney)
Silva, E.  (2000)  'The cook, the cooker and the gendering of the kitchen', in Sociological Review, 48  (4): 612 - 629. (Discussion of the effects of technological change in cooking on gender relations -- and vice versa. Uses actor network theory and post-structuralist feminism).
Shilling, C. & Bunsell, T.  (2009) 'The female body builder as a gender outlaw'.  Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise,1 (2): 141-59. (Uses Goffman. V. good on pleasures)
Sterkenberg, J, and Knoppers, A  (2004)  'Dominant Discourses About Race/Ethnicity and Gender in Sport Practice and Performance', in International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 39 (3): 301 - 21 (An analysis of media discourses about sport, gender and 'race' and a comparison with respondents's discourses to see if there is any hegemonic effect).
Walseth, K. (2006) ‘Young Muslim Women and Sport: the impact of identity work’, in Leisure Studies 25 (1): 75—94.( An unusual piece arguing that some young Muslim women in Norway can disentangle being a Muslim from being an immigrant and thus compromise betweem Muslim identity and playing sport. Good on 'identity work')
Wearing, B and Wearing, S  (1996)  'Refocusing the tourist experience: the flâneur and the choraster', in Leisure Studies, Vol 15: 229 - 43. (Makes a strong case for feminist deconstruction of leading concepts in tourism research including the flȃneur and the gaze. Uses the notion of the chora to stress alternative conceptions emphasising human interactions and existential openness).
Whannel, G. (1999)  'Sports stars, narrativization and masculinities', in Leisure Studies, 18: 249 - 65. (Rather convoluted discussion of masculinities, especially in sport, and how they are arranged in order of dominance in media coverage. Includes 'new laddism').
Wiley, C., Shaw, S., Havitz, M.  (2000)  'Men's and Women's Involvement in Sports: An Examination of the Gendered Aspects of Leisure Involvement', in Leisure Sciences, Vol 22: 19 - 31. (A very interesting empirical attempt to measure involvement. Surprising results too -- gender seems not strongly connected with involvement).
Wilkins, A.  (2004) ' "So Full of Myself as a Chick" Goth Women, Sexual Independence, and Gender Egalitarianism', in Gender and Society, 18 (3): 328 -- 49. (An  account of the insights and limitations of Goth versions of sexual activism as challenges to patriarchy).

Gramscianism
Armstrong, P  (2001)  'Styles of illusion', in The Sociological Review: 155 - 73 . (Nice critique of gramscian styles of argument, rather like my own, but directed at Du Gay on 'enterprise culture'. A bit naive on survey data as a solution?).
Bennett, A  (2002)  'Researching youth culture and popular music: a methodological critique', in British Journal of Sociology, Vol 53, 3: 451 - 66. ( One of the critiques is of gramscian work on music and youth culture as offering only a limited ethnographic understanding).
CCCS (1978) On Ideology. London: Hutchinson (A collection featuring all the big hitters)
Cohen P. (2004)  'A Place To Think?: Some Reflections on the Idea of a University in the Age Of The  "Knowledge Economy"', in New Formations, 53: 12 - 27 (An excellent lament for the UK university as the home of critique. Acute analysis of the sad role played by gramscianism in its decline).
Delgado, F.  (2003)  'The Fusing of Sport and Politics. Media Constructions of US Versus Iran at France '98', in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 27(3): 293 - 307. (an American piece,but a close cousin of gramscian approaches. Does the coverage of the match reveal hegemony at work or not?)
McRobbie, A and Thornton, S.  (1995)  'Rethinking  "moral panic"  for multi-mediated social worlds', in British Journal of Sociology, Vol 46, No 4: 559 - 574. (An excellent critique of classic conceptions of moral panics in understanding youth cultures. Some application to raves. Partly answered by Critcher).
McCarthy, D., Jones, R., Potrac, P.  (2003)  'Constructing Images and Interpreting Realities', in International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 38/2: 217 - 38 (Classic gramscian 'Cultural Studies' account of the depiction of black soccer players on British TV. Includes their own empirical work).
Peukert, D.  (1987) Inside Nazi Germany. Conformity, Opposition and Racism in Everyday Life, London: Batsford Ltd  (A chapter from this famous study of life under fascism, focusing on the youth subcultures that emerged and resisted. Very good account of hegemony and resistance in fascism, refd to CCCS work).
Scatamburlo-D’Annibale, V. and McLaren, P. (2003) The Strategic Centrality of Class in the Politics of “Race” and “Difference” in Cultural Studies ↔ Critical Methodologies,  3(2): 148-175 ( A strong critique of 'post-marxist' positions on 'race' and class)
Stahl, G.  (1999)  'Still  "Winning Space?": Updating Subcultural Theory', in In[ ]visible Culture, an electronic journal for visual studies [online]  http://www.rochester.edu/in_visible_culture/issue2/stahl.htm (A thorough critique of classic CCCS work on youth subcultures and a suggested alternative based on work like Thornton,  Bourdieu and cultural geographical understandings of the global).
Sterkenberg, J, and Knoppers, A  (2004)  'Dominant Discourses About Race/Ethnicity and Gender in Sport Practice and Performance', in International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 39 (3): 301 - 21 (An analysis of media discourses about sport, gender and 'race' and a comparison with respondents's discourses to see if there is any hegemonic effect)
Tomlinson, A. (1989)  'Whose side are they on? Leisure studies and cultural studies in Britain', in Leisure Studies, 8  (2): 97-106. (Not recent, but makes a classic case for Cultural Studies as a source of critique).
Townshend, J.  (2004)  'Laclau and Mouffe's Hegemonic Project: The Story So Far', in Political Studies, 52: 269 - 88. (Excellent if rather technical discussion of Laclau and Mouffe whose work provides a most ambiguous legacy for gramscianism)/
Whannel, G. (1999)  'Sports stars, narrativization and masculinities', in Leisure Studies, 18: 249 - 65. (Rather convoluted discussion of masculinities, especially in sport, and how they are arranged in order of dominance in media coverage. Includes 'new laddism').
Wood, B (1998) 'Stuart Hall's Cultural Studies and the problem of hegemony', in British Journal of Sociology, Vol 49, 3: 399--414. (A useful summary of the oscillations and evasions in Hall's treatment of major concepts like 'hegemony' and 'articulation'. Nearly as good as Harris 1992!)

Heritage
Aitchison, C., Macleod, N., and Shaw, S.  (2000). Leisure and tourism landscapes: social and cultural geographies, London: Routledge ( about the interpretation of lansdscapes including heritage landscapes)
Catterall, S.  (2005)  'Public History Review Essay.  "Otherness" plus the three Cs minus Orwell:  "The Wigan Pier Experience"', in Labour History Review  (70) 1: 103 -- 110. (A review of the usual dilemmas with the heritage industry, brought up to date).
Dicks, B.  (2003)  'Heritage, Governance and Marketization: a Case study from Wales', in Museum and Society, 1 (1): 30 -- 44. ( A useful review of how local  political struggles can resist full 'marketization' of heritage attractions).
Ennen, E.  (2000)  'The Meaning of Heritage According to Connoisseurs, Rejectors and Take-it-or-leavers in Historic City Centres: two Dutch cities experienced', in International Journal of Heritage Studies, 6, 4: 331 - 349. (A quantitative analysis of the preferences and attitudes towards city centre heritage by residents [for a change] in Dutch cities. Some rather bland policy implications).
Grimwade, G and Carter, D.  (2000)  'Managing Small Heritage Sites with Interpretation and Community Involvement', in International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol 6, 1: 33 - 48. (Makes a strong claim for the role of interpretation in local involvement. Outlines some dilemmas and management solutions).
Hale, A.  (2001)  'Representing the Cornish. Contesting heritage interpretation in Cornwall', in Tourist Studies, 1(2): 185 - 196. (explores the politics of heritage in Cornwall. Concludes there may be an empowering aspect for Cornish nationalists).
Harvey, D.  (2001)  'Heritage Pasts and Heritage Presents: temporality, meaning and the scope of heritage studies', in International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol 7, 4: 319 - 338. (A critical examination of earlier examples of the construction of heritage to expose the full range of factors at work, not just those of modernity or late capitalism).
McGuigan, J. (2003)  'The social construction of a cultural disaster: New Labour's Millennium Experience', in Cultural Studies, Vol 17, No 5: 669 - 90. (Very critical analysis of the mixture of corporate ideology, arrogance and New Labour ['Third Way'] policy that produced the Millennium Dome).
Powe, N. and Willis, K.  (1996)  'Benefits received by visitors to heritage sites: a case study of Warkworth Castle', in Leisure Studies 15: 259 - 275. (Technical but ingenious ways to estimate benefits received from heritage above and beyond those met by the cost of entry. Conclusions suggest good economic reasons for preservation).
Sundbo, J. and Darmer, P. (eds) (2008) Creating Experiences in the Experience Economy, Edward Elgar: Cheltenham (focuses on the activities which tourists and visitors engage in, via concepts like performance)
Tivers, J. (2002)  'Performing Heritage: the use of live "actors" in heritage presentations', in Leisure Studies, 21: 187 - 200. (A slightly unusual consideration of people who like to perform heritage re-enactments as opposed to visitors. They are keen on 'authenticity' too).
Winter, T. (2002)  'Angkor Meets Tomb Raider: setting the scene', in International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol 8, 4: 323 - 36. (Discussion of the contradictory effects of filming TR at the site and some implications for the management of new types of tourism).

Hyperreality
Ferrell, J, Milovanavic, D. and Lyng, S (2001)  'Edgework, media practices, and the elongation of meaning : A theoretical ethnography of the Bridge Day events', in Theoretical Criminology 5 (2): 177 - 202. (BASE jumping as 'edgework' as in Lyng's classic, but also a discussion of the role of mass media in constructing subcultures and being used by them to understand their own ecstatic moments).
Merrin, W.  (1999)  'Crash, bang, wallop! What a picture! The death of Diana and the media', in Mortality, Vol 4, No 1: 41- 62. (Uses the media event of Princess Diana's death to make Baudrillard-inspired comments about hyperreality,simulacra, and pornographic culture).
Merrin, W. (2001)  'To play with phantoms: Jean Baudrillard and the evil demon of the simulacrum', in Economy and Society, Vol 30, No 1: 85 - 111.( Rather an abstract piece but very clear on the development of simulacra, how this leads to hyperreality, and how the tendency might be opposed. Useful asides on authenticity and pornography).

Identities

Kivell, P. and Kleiber, D.  (2000)  'Leisure in the Identity Formation of Lesbian/ Gay Youth: Personal, but Not Social', in Leisure Sciences, 22: 215 - 232. (Interviews some gay and lesbian adolescents and finds leisure is interpreted for personal implications. Leisure unable to become a full commitment).
Bourdieu, P. (2000)  'Making the economic habitus. Algerian workers revisited', in Ethnography, Vol 1, No 1: 17 - 41. (Actual ethnography demonstrated here, with its capacities to make the familiar strange and vice-versa. The article discusses the changes in Kabylian [Algerian] traditional society after colonisation in order to illustrate just how historically specific modern economic rationality really is).
Potrac, P. and Jones, R. (2009) Micropolitical workings in semi-professional football, Sociology of Sport Journal, 26, 557-577. (A football coach uses micropolitics to negotiate his way around resistance from players and managers to get his way. Lots of good 'speical pleading' to defend the single interview as sound)
Roberts, K.  (1997) 'Same activities, different meanings: British youth cultures in the 1990s', in Leisure Studies, 16,1: 1-- 16. (Discusses whether youth cultures are more fluid and whether identities are based on them. Uses some survey data to raise doubts).
Sobal, J. and Maurer, D (Eds.) (1999) Interpreting Weight:  The social management of fatness and thinness, Aldine de Gruyter:  New York (Collection of work on identity construction among obese and 'normal' people, using good old symbolic interactionist approaches featuring social reactions, resistance,coping strategies and careers. A rare case of an attempt to listen to the voices of obese people).
Tuck, J. (2003)  'The Men in White. Reflections on Rugby Union, the Media and Englishness', in International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Vol 38, No 2: 177 - 199. (An analysis of the media coverage of the England rugby team during the 1995 World Cup -- so lots of comparisons to be made with the 2003 success. Uses figurational and marxist approaches [controversially] combined).

Illegal Leisure
Parker, H., Williams, L., Aldridge, J. (2002)  'The Normalization of "Sensible" Recreational Drug Use: further evidence from the North-West England Longitudinal Study', in Sociology, 36 (4): 941 - 964. (Follow up to large empirical study of drug taking in UK. Further evidence of 'normalization').
Peretti-Watel, P  (2003)  'Neutralisation theory and the denial of risk: some evidence from cannabis use among French adolescents', in British Journal of Sociology, Vol 54, No 1: 21 - 42. (French study, extending the work of Sykes and Matza on delinquency and Becker on cannabis use. Adds discussion of techniques to deny risk. Some reference to large quantitative study of drug users).

Leisure (and sports) Policy (includes evaluation of policy)
Bailey, R.  (2005) ‘Evaluating the relationship between physical education, sport and social inclusion’, Educational Review, 57 (1): 72—90. (Useful summary of fairly recent policy on social inclusion etc. and some sensible criticisms reminding us of the need to remember that not everyone likes sport or PE)
Bellaby, P and Lawrenson, D. (2001)  'Approaches to the risk of riding motorcycles: reflections on the problem of reconciling statistical risk assessment and motorcyclists' own reasons for riding', in The Sociological Review: 368 - 88 [no volume or issue numbers in this electronic copy]. (Discussion of  the contrast between official statistical accounts of risk and those of the motorcyclists themselves. A general model of the social dimensions of risk ensues).
Blackshaw, T. and Long, J. (2005)  'What's the Big Idea? A Critical Exploration of the Concept of Social Capital and its Incorporation into Leisure Policy Discourse', Leisure Studies, 24 (3): 239 - 58. (Good critical discussion of current views of social capital and its links with leisure policy. Summarises Bourdieu's version of social capital).
Burns, P (2004)  'Tourism Planning. A Third Way?', in Annals of Tourism Research, Vol 31, No. 1: 24 - 43. (Takes Giddens' '5 dilemmas' in Third Way thinking and explores implications for more complex and consensual tourism planning. Rather idealistic -- not as critical as Stevens and Green below).
Carroll M. David, M., Jacobs, B., Kalvinder, J., and Wilkes, B.  (2005)  'A Realistic/Theory of Change Approach to the Evaluation of Health Promotion in Small - and Medium - Sized Enterprises in Sandwell', in Social Policy and Society, 4 (4): 393 - 401. (A pretty simple and obvious piece, really -- good for the basics)
Casey, M., Payne, W. and Eime, R.(2009) 'Building the health promotion capacity of sport and recreation organisations: A case study of Regional Sports Assemblies', Managing Leisure, 14: 2, 112 — 124 (Apologetic and officially-funded account of change in local sports organisations. Dead 'relevant' no doubt)
Coalter, F.  (1999)  'Sport and recreation in the United Kingdom: flow with the flow or buck the trends?', in Managing Leisure, 4: 24 - 39 (Uses recent data to rethink the 'decline' in sport and leisure in the UK, and suggests some policy measures).
Delaney, K., and Eckstein, R.  (2008) ‘Local Media Coverage of Sports Stadium Initiatives’, in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 32 (1): 72-93. (Tries - not very successfully-- to map out the role of the media in local politics on the development of sports stadia in US cities)
unning, E and Waddington, I.  (2003) 'Sport as a Drug and Drugs in Sport', in International Review for the Sociology of Sport, vol 38 No. 3: 351 - 368. (An exploratory piece, showing the relevance of work in the figurationalist tradition. Also useful for its scepticism about policies promoting participation in sport as minimising  illegal activities among the young).
Elling, A., De Knop, P., and Knoppers, A. (2003) 'Gay/Lesbian Sport Clubs and Events. Places of Homo-Social Bonding and Cultural Resistance?', in International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 38/4: 441 - 56. (A critical discussion of the contradictory implications of using sport to integrate sexual minorities in Holland, followed by a case-study of members of gay/lesbian volleyball clubs to pin down reasons for joining).
Garrety, K.  (1997)  'Social Worlds, Actor-Networks and Controversy: The Case of Cholesterol, Dietary Fat and Heart Disease', in Social Studies of Science, 27: 727--73. (Very detailed analysis of the interplay between scientific research and political, personal and commerical manoeuvring to explain the emergence of the low-fat/cholesterol diet as a science-based policy. Tries out ANT and more conventional sociological analysis).
Gibson, C and Kong, L  (2005)  'Cultural economy: a critical review', in Progress in Human Geography, 29 (5): 541 - 561 (Good solidly critical analysis of the main claims of the 'cultural economy script'., with implications for policies of cultural regeneration/ cultural quarters)
Glover, T.  (2003) 'Regulating the Rave Scene: Exploring the Policy Alternatives of Government', in Leisure Sciences, Vol 25: 307 - 325. (An interesting review from a North American (US and Canada) perspective. Considers policy options and supports 'harm reduction' rather than prohibition).
Green, M.  (2004) ‘Changing policy priorities for sport in England: the emergence of elite sport development as a key policy concern’, in Leisure Studies, 23 (4): 365-85.( A good discussion of how elite sport has quietly dominated sports policy as a priority as discourses shape up to interpret ambiguous formulations).
Houlihan, B. (2005) 'Public Sector Sport Policy. Developing a Framework for Analysis', in International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 40 (2): 163 - 85 (argues for institutional analysis in policy making, and tries out some models).
Kremer-Sadlik T .and Kim, J (2007) ‘Lessons from sports: children’s socialization to values through family interaction during sports activities’, in Discourse and Society, 18 (1): 35-52. ( argues that talk about sport is what helps socialize kids , that parents are crucial and that it need not be actual participation in live sport)
Lindsey, I.  (2008) ‘Conceptualising sustainability in sports development’, Leisure Studies, 27 (3): 279-294. ( Uses health policy work to develop a classificatory framework to help clarify definitions and policy.Case-study is interesting but much sanitised and made to fit)
Lubans, D.  and Morgan, P.  (2008) ‘Impact of an extracurricular school sport programme on determinants of objectively measured physical activity among adolescents’, in Health Education Journal, 67 (4): 305 –320. (Quais-experimental sports science design to test effectiveness of LEAF on motivations and lifestyle. Failed).
Oakley, K.  (2004)  'Not so cool Britannia. The role of the creative industries in economic development', in International Journal of Cultural Studies, 7 (1): 67 - 77. (A critical examination of some of the key assumptions involved in using creative industries for economic regeneration. A plea for more  evidence)
Parry-Langdon, N., Bloor, M., Audrey, S. and Holliday, J.  (2003)  'Process evaluation of health promotion interventions', in Policy and Politics, 31 (2): 207-16.  (The authors argue for the importance of process as well as outcome evaluation, discuss methodological issues, and describe evaluations of two case-studies both designed to prevent smoking among schoolchildren).
Pringle, A., Gilson, N., McKenna, J., and Cooke, C.  (2009) ‘An evaluation of the Local Exercise Action Pilots and impact on moderate physical activity’, in Health Education Journal, 68 (3): 179 – 185 (Interesting attempt to evaluate one of the more successful intervention projects costing Ł3m. Questions to ask about the research instruments and the drop out rate)
Piggin et al (2009) 'Knowledge, Power and Politics: Contesting "Evidence-based" National Sport Policy', in International Revioew for the Sociology of Sport, 44(1): 87-101 (Uses Foucault to criticise evidence-based approaches)
Prior, D.  (2005)  'Civil Renewal and Community Safety: Virtuous Policy Spiral or Dynamic of Exclusion?', in Social Policy and Society, 4 (4): 357 - 67. (About safety and crime prevention policies, but a good critique of policies of community regeneration which could easily be applied to sport and leisure).
Rilling, C. and Jordan, D.  (2007) ‘Important Co-leader Skills and Traits on Extended Outdoor Trips as Perceived by Leaders’, Leisure Studies, 26 (2): 193-212.( An interesting study in its use of Q-sort techniques to organise the views of leaders on the desirable traits of co-leaders. Implications follow for the organization of outdoor adventures).
Roberts, K.  (2004) ‘Leisure Inequalities, Class Divisions and Social Exclusion in Present day Britain’, Cultural Trends, 13 (2) 1-15. (Rather confusing summary, pessimistic about policy to reduce social exclusion).
Rowe, D. and McGuirk, P. (1999) ‘Drunk for Three Weeks: Sporting Success and City Image’, in International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 34 (2): 125-41. (A critical account of the use of sporting success in promoting city redevelopment. Is the macho image of sport compatible with the often-desired change towards the service economy?).
Raine, G.  (2007) ‘Commercial activities in primary schools: a quantitative study’, in Oxford Review of Education, 33 (2): 211-31.( Basic ddesriptive survey followed by long rant about evils of commerical involvement as contradicting health promotion etc)
Smith, A, Green, K and Roberts, K  (2004)  'Sports Participation and the  "Obesity/Health Crisis"', in International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 39 (4): 457-- 64. (A nice short review of the doubts about the policy of encouraging sports participation to overcome obesity)
Smith, A and Waddington, I  (2004)  'Using  "sport in the community schemes"  to tackle crime and drug use among young people: some policy issues and problems', in European Physical Education Review, 10 (3): 279 - 98. (Thorough discussion of the theroretical and methodological problems in trying to measure effectiveness)
Stevens, D and Green, P.  (2002)  'Explaining continuity and change in the transition from Compulsory Competitive Tendering to Best Value for sport and recreation management', in Managing Leisure, Vol 7: 124 - 38. ( Discussion of the pros and cons of the 2 approaches in UK leisure provision and their underlying philosophies - Thatcherism on the one hand and Third Way/New Labour on the other).
Stott, C., Adang, O., Livingstone, A . and Schreiber, M. (2007) ‘Variability in the collective behaviour of fans at Euro 2004: “Hooliganism”, public order policing and social change’, in European Journal of Social Psychology, 37: 75—100. (Pretty basic study arguing that low key policing has better results in helping crowds police themselves).
Tacon, R. (2005)  'Football and Social Inclusion: Evaluating Social Policy', a research paper from the Football Government Research Centre, Birkbeck University  [online] http://www.football-research.org/docs/socialinclusion.pdf (A useful critique of the methodology of many evaluation projects and a suggestion for a new 'realist' model to guide future work).
Weiner, K (2009) ‘Lay Involvement and Legitimacy: The Construction of Expertise and Participation within HEART UK’, in Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 38 (2): 254-273. (Rather basic account of how fashionable mergers of lay and expert associations in health lead to domination by the professionals).
Woodward, K.  (2007) ‘On and Off the Pitch.  Diversity policies and transforming identities?’, In Cultural Studies (21) 4-5: 758-78.(Quite a good account of how diversity policies are sometimes managed in football to produce an 'accommodation' with existing identities -- they become paternalistic help for the 'less fortunate', or token efforts in order to comply with funding requirements)

McDonaldization
Fantasia, R. (1995)  'Fast Food in France', in Theory and Society, Vol 24, No 2: 201 - 43. (An account of accommodation and resistance - see also Ram and Traphagen & Brown below -- but also a good account of the cultural appeal of Macs as American, progressive etc for the young petit bourgeoisie and adolescents).
Mayhew, C and Quinlan, M.  (2002)  'Fordism in the fast food industry: pervasive management control and occupational health and safety risks for young temporary workers', in Sociology of Health and Illness, Vol 24, No 3: 261 - 84. (A quick review of this piece on the good safety record of Fordist techniques in fast food, despite risks of violence from customers)
Prichard, C. and Willmott, H. (1996) 'Just how managed is the McUniversity?', unpublished, a paper given at the 'The Dilemmas of Mass Higher Education' conference, Staffordshire University, April 10-12, 1996. (A critical account of Macdonaldisation as applied to universities. Managers cannot dominate universities, although the trends are all that way).
Ram, U. (2004)  'Glocommodification: How the Global Consumes the Local -- McDonald's in Israel', in Current Sociology, Vol 52, No.1: 11 - 31. (Good examples of combinations of local and global in fast food. Overall conclusion is that commodification dominates)
Ritzer, G. (1996)  'McUniversity in the Post modern Consumer Society', in Quality in Higher Education, Vol 2, No 3: 185 - 99 (A trenchant examination and critique of trends in university organisation. A response to Prichard and Willmott. A clearly transitional piece moving from Weber into marxism and Baudrillard).
Ritzer, G (2003) 'Islands of the Living Dead. The Social Geography of McDonaldization' in American Behavioural Scientist 42(2). (Prefers Baudrillard to get a sense of uneven McDonaldization and pursue a heavy critique about simulated life in the sites).
Ritzer, G. and Stillman, T. (2001)  'The Postmodern Ballpark as a Leisure Setting: Enchantment and Simulated De- McDonaldization', in Leisure Sciences, 23: 99-113.(Applies McDonaldization and 'enchantment' to baseball. Adds in some themes from postmodern and marxist analysis. Concludes McDonaldization is only concealed not reversed by 'enchantment' strategies).
Traphagen, J. and Brown, L  (2002)  'Fast food and intergenerational commensality in Japan: new styles and old patterns', in Ethnology, Vol 41, No 2: 119 - 34. (More of a 'transnational' account of Japanese localisation of US fast food, which denies globalized McDonaldization, unlike Ram. Interesting case studies)

Narratives
Clough, P.  (2001)  'On the Relationship of the Criticism of Ethnographic Writing and the Cultural Studies of Science', in Cultural Studies -- Critical Methodologies, 1 (2): 240 - 270 ( A reprise of the famous critique of ethnographic writing based on postructuralist feminism).
Gare, A  (2002)  'Narratives and Culture: The Role of Stories in Self - Creation', in Telos, 122: 80 - 101. (A sweeping historical and general account of the importance of narratives in understanding the world, as opposed to positivism and scientism especially. Some complex positions nicely explained. Excellent references and notes.)
Kelner, S  (2001)  'Narrative Construction of Authenticity in Pilgrimage Touring', a paper presented at the 96th Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, [online] http://cmjs.org/files/ASA2001.pdf (A very clear discussion of different accounts of authenticity and a focus on how tourists and tour companies actually try to resolve the different senses through narratives)
Noy, C  (2004)  'This Trip Really Changed Me: Backpackers' Narratives of Self Change', in Annals Of Tourism Research, Vol 31, No 1: 78 - 102. (A useful demonstration of the power of analysing narratives as linked to identity, social and cultural contexts and 'performance').
Whannel, G. (1999)  'Sports stars, narrativization and masculinities', in Leisure Studies, 18: 249 - 65. (Rather convoluted discussion of masculinities, especially in sport, and how they are arranged in order of dominance in media coverage. Includes 'new laddism').

Pleasures
Franklin, A  (2001)  'Neo-Darwinian Leisure, the Body and Nature: Hunting and Angling in Modernity', in Body and Society, Vol 7, No 4: 57 - 76 . ( Good account of sociological approaches to hunting and fishing. Tries to develop a 'sociology of the body' alternative. Pursues the issue of the real pleasures of bloodsports).
Gantz, W., Zheng, W., Bryant,  P., and Potter, R (2006) ‘Sports Versus All Comers: Comparing TV Sports Fans With Fans of Other Programming Genres’, in Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 50(1): 95—118.(Thorough psychological study of fans and their viewing patterns, comparing sports fans and fans of other genres. Gender emerges as an important variable)
Holyfield, L.  (1999)  'Manufacturing Adventure The Buying and Selling of Emotions', in Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 28 (1): 3 - 32. (Despite its uncompromising title, this is actually quite a sympathetic account of 'manufactured pleasures' in commercial whitewater rafting. Good material on  the role of the guides in interpreting and negotiating pleasure for the customers).
Jones, C., Hollenhorst, S., Perna, F. (2003)  'An Empirical Comparison of the Four-Channel Flow Model and Adventure Experience Paradigm', in Leisure Sciences, Vol. 25: 17 - 31. (An over-technical piece but with some useful material on operationalising and actually testing for 'flow').
Kane M and Tucker H  (2004)  'Adventure tourism. The freedom to play with reality', in Tourist Studies, 4 (3): 217 - 34. (A p/o study of adventure tourists and the stories they tell to talk up adventure and talk down being packaged)
Rossiter P  (2007)  'Rock Climbing: On Humans, Nature, and Other Nonhumans', in Space and Culture, 10 (2): 292 - 305. (A mind-boggling rethink of human-nature relations using Actor-Network Theory. Excellent on the pleasures of rock climbing too)

Pornography
Attwood, F.  (2002)  'A very British carnival: Women, sex and transgression in Fiesta magazine', in European Journal of Cultural Studies, 5 (1) 91 - 105. (Offers detailed analysis of a soft-porn British magazine to test readings of pornography as male power or as transgressive. Identifies peculiar British features of lingering guilt and anxiety despite some male domination).
Attwood F  (2005)  '"Tits and ass and porn and fighting". Male heterosexuality in magazines for men', in International Journal of Cultural Studies, 8 (1): 83 -- 100.(Briliant title! A review of men's and women's magazines including 'soft porn' and lifestyle to examine how bodies and sex are represented)
Kibby, M and Costello, B. (2001)  'Between the Image and the Act: Interactive Sex Entertainment on the Internet', in Sexualities, Vol 4  (3): 353 - 69.(Very interesting account of video conferencing technology used to construct interactive 'sex entertainment' -- which is more experimental and liberating than the usual pornographic commodities)
Patton, C  (2001)  '"Rock Hard"  Judging the Female Physique', in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, Vol 25, 2: 118 - 40. (A free-ranging discussion of female body-builder and how they manage and subvert gender identities. Discusses issues like 'the gaze' and  the active audience as well as the pleasures appropriate to sport and to spectacle).
Shaw, S. (1999)  'Men's leisure and women's lives: the impact of pornography on women', in Leisure Studies, vol 18: 197 - 212 (Some original small-scale research on women's attitudes and their fears).
Smith, C. (2002)  '" They're ordinary people, not Aliens from the Planet Sex!'": the mundane excitements of pornography for women', in Journal of Mundane Behaviour, Vol 3, 1. [online : http//www.mundanebehaviour.org/issues/v3n1/csmith.htm](A discussion of the 'ordinary' uses of pornography, to break from the polarities offered by conventional debates)

Postmodernism
Armstrong, E.  (1996)  'The Commodified 23, or, Michael Jordan as Text', in Sociology of Sport Journal, Vol 13: 325 - 43. (An interesting account of postmodern dimensions of sport applied to understand the Jordan phenomenon).
Buckingham, D.  (2003)  'Media Education and the End of the Critical Consumer', in Harvard Educational Review, Vol 73, No 3. (An insightful account of the effects of postmodern media on children as consumers and the contrasts with media education).
Journal of Consumer Culture (2001)  'Interview with Ulrich Beck', in Journal of Consumer Culture, Vol 1, 2: 261 - 77. (Beck outlines his criticisms of postmodernism and offers an account of 'second modernity'/risk society instead)
Ritzer, G. and Stillman, T. (2001)  'The Postmodern Ballpark as a Leisure Setting: Enchantment and Simulated De-McDonaldization', in Leisure Sciences, 23: 99-113.(Applies McDonaldization and 'enchantment' to baseball. Adds in some themes from postmodern and marxist analysis. Concludes McDonaldization is only concealed not reversed by 'enchantment' strategies).
Sweetman, P. (1999)  'Anchoring the (Postmodern) Self? Body Modification, Fashion and Identity', in Body and Society, Vol 5  (2 - 3): 51 - 76. (A thoughtful if a bit lengthy account of the significance of body modification as more than either fashion or simple anti-fashion -- it involves 'body projects')
Woodward, I., Emmison, M., and Smith, P.  (2000) 'Consumerism, disorientation and postmodern space: a modest test of an immodest theory', in British Journal of Sociology, Vol 51, No 2: 339 - 54. (A sceptical sociological piece testing empirically the view that postmodern buildings, especially shopping malls, induce disorientation and thus vulnerability to consumerism.) .

Posts
Aitchison, C.  (2000)  'Poststructural feminist theories of representing Others: their response to the  "crisis" in leisure studies' discourse', in Leisure Studies, vol 19: 127 - 144. (Outlines contribution of poststructuralist feminism in making theoretical advances while retaining political interests. Case studies in tourism [exotic locations as Other], and work-leisure relations).
Aitchison, C., Macleod, N., and Shaw, S.  (2000). Leisure and tourism landscapes: social and cultural geographies, London: Routledge ( about the interpretation of lansdscapes including heritage landscapes)
Clough, P.  (2001)  'On the Relationship of the Criticism of Ethnographic Writing and the Cultural Studies of Science', in Cultural Studies -- Critical Methodologies, 1 (2): 240 - 270 ( A reprise of the famous critique of ethnographic writing based on postructuralist feminism).
Cudney, S.  (2000)  'Heroes, Hoboes, and the Question of Ethics: a Response to Brian Pronger...', in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 24 (4): 370 - 79. (A summary and critique of Pronger -- see below -- and post-structuralism on the grounds of its neglected ethical assumptions and its Enlightenment pessimism)
Fullagar, S.  (2002)  'Narratives of travel: desire and the movement of feminine subjectivity', in Leisure Studies, Vol 21, No 1:  57 - 74. (Poetic and personal account weaving together travel diary extracts and high philosophy to provide a post-structuralist feminist account of travel as really encountering otherness).
Kim, H. and Richardson, S  (2003)  'Motion Picture Impacts on Destination Images', in Annals of Tourism Research, Vol 30, No 1: 216 - 37. (An attempt to pin down possible effects of viewing movies on tourist choice of destinations, as predicted by Urry among others. Good literature review but pretty limited actual study).
Pronger, B.  (1999)  'Outta My Endzone: Sport and the Territorial Anus', in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 23 (4): 373 - 89. ( Lively post-freudian analysis of the structure of desire and how it is realised in competitive sport) (see also Cudney above).
Wayne, M.  (2003) 'Post-Fordism, monopoly capitalism, and Hollywood's media industrial complex', in International Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol 6, No 1: 82 - 103. (This article attempts to rescue marxist theory from the challenge of postfordist theories, discusses Hollywood, and Disney in particular).
Wearing, B and Wearing, S  (1996)  'Refocusing the tourist experience: the flâneur and the choraster', in Leisure Studies, Vol 15: 229 - 43. (Makes a strong case for feminist deconstruction of leading concepts in tourism research including the flȃneur and the gaze. Uses the notion of the chora to stress alternative conceptions emphasising human interactions and existential openness).
Williams, C .(2002)  'A critical evaluation of the commodification thesis', in The Sociological Review [no volume or issue numbers in this electronic copy] 525 - 42. (A discussion of the role of unpaid and voluntary work and its continued importance. Issues raised for the work-leisure distinction and for post-fordist economies)

'Race' and Leisure
Burgess, M., Dill, K., Stermer, S., Burgess, S., Brown, B. (2011) 'Playing With Prejudice: The Prevalence and Consequences of Racial Stereotypes in Video Games'.  Media Psychology, 14: 289-311. (usual careful positivist analysis -- shows evidence of stereotypes)
 
Harrison, L., Azzarito, L. and Burden, J.  (2004)  'Perceptions of athletic superiority: a view from the other side', in Race Ethnicity and Education, 7 (2): 149 -- 66. (An unusual US study of the effects of racial stereotypes in lowering the ambitions of white kids in sport)
Holland, B.  (1997)  'Surviving leisure time racism: the burden of racial harassment on Britain's black footballers', in Leisure Studies, 16, 4: 261 - 77. (Includes own observations and interviews with black players. Nice way to identify specifics of racialised 'burden of abuse').
Jarvie, G. and Reid, I.  (1997)  'Race-relations, the sociology of sport, and the new politics of race and racism', in Leisure Studies, 16  (4): 211 - 20. (A brief intro and useful review of existing perspectives)
McCarthy, D., Jones, R., Potrac, P.  (2003)  'Constructing Images and Interpreting Realities', in International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 38/2: 217 - 38 (Classic gramscian 'Cultural Studies' account of the depiction of black soccer players on British TV. Includes their own empirical work).
Rasmussen, R , Esgate, A and Turner (2005) ‘On your marks, get stereotyped, go!”, in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, vol. 29 (4): 426 – 436 ( Some theory of stereotyping with a study involving stereotypes and attributed reasons for athletic success)
Scatamburlo-D’Annibale, V. and McLaren, P. (2003) The Strategic Centrality of Class in the Politics of “Race” and “Difference” in Cultural Studies ↔ Critical Methodologies,  3(2): 148-175. ( Strong case for seeing 'race' as inextricably connected with social class)
Spencer, N.  (2004)  'Sister Act VI: Venus and Serena Williams at Indian Wells:  "Sincere Fictions"  and White Racism', in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 28  (2): 115 -- 35. (A discussion of different forms of racism in sport, 'applied' to the career of the Williams sisters).
St Louis, B. (2004)  'Sport and common sense racial science', in Leisure Studies, Vol 23, No 1: 31 - 46  [NB this is a special edition on sport and 'race']. (Good logical criticisms of common-sense racialised perceptions of why black athletes appear to do so well).
Sterkenberg, J, and Knoppers, A  (2004)  'Dominant Discourses About Race/Ethnicity and Gender in Sport Practice and Performance', in International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 39 (3): 301 - 21 (An analysis of media discourses about sport, gender and 'race' and a comparison with respondents's discourses to see if there is any hegemonic effect)
Stodolska, M.  (2005)  'A Conditioned Attitude Model of Individual Discriminatory Behaviour', in Leisure Sciences, 27: 1 - 20. (Some psychological work, for a change, on models of discrimination, applied to racism. The whole edition of the journal discusses the approach and some notes of the debate are also included)
Walseth, K. (2006) ‘Young Muslim Women and Sport: the impact of identity work’, in Leisure Studies 25 (1): 75—94.( An unusual piece arguing that some young Muslim women in Norway can disentangle being a Muslim from being an immigrant and thus compromise betweem Muslim identity and playing sport. Good on 'identity work')

Semiotics
Armstrong, E.  (1996)  'The Commodified 23, or, Michael Jordan as Text', in Sociology of Sport Journal, Vol 13: 325 - 43. (An interesting account of postmodern dimensions of sport applied to understand the Jordan phenomenon. Uses a series of binaries to do so as in classic semiotics).
James, A. (1990)  'The good, the bad and the delicious: the role of confectionery in British society', in The Sociological Review, Vol 38, No 4: 366 - 85.(An update of a famous piece on the semiotics of food [via Levi-Strauss]: confectionery is socially and culturally useful because of its ambiguous location between food and non-food).
Johns, N.  and Clarke, V.  (2001) ‘Mythological Analysis of Boating Tourism’, in Annals of Tourism Research, 28(2): 334-59. (Strange ragbag of semiotic stuff used to code tourist accounts and photos, rather heavy-handedly in my view)
Lindquist, G. (2001) 'Transforming Signs. Iconicity and Indexicality in Russian Healing and Magic', in Ethnos, Vol 66, 2: 181 - 206. (A semiotic analysis of magic and healing practices, using Peirce rather than French semiotics. Try this on spiritualism, New Age healing, the practice of visiting mediums and the like?).

Shopping
Cook, D.  (2001)  'Exchange Value as Pedagogy in Children's Leisure: Moral Panics in Children's Culture at Century's End', in Leisure Sciences, Vol 23: 81 - 98(Excellent discussion of  children as consumers, focusing on trading cards, Pokemon and Beanie Babies and the moral panics and paradoxes around them).
Woodward, I., Emmison, M., and Smith, P.  (2000) 'Consumerism, disorientation and postmodern space: a modest test of an immodest theory', in British Journal of Sociology, Vol 51, No 2: 339 - 54. (A sceptical sociological piece testing empirically the view that postmodern buildings, especially shopping malls, induce disorientation and thus vulnerability to consumerism).

Social Class
Abbas, A.  (2004)  'The embodiment of class, gender and age through leisure: a realist analysis of long distance running', in Leisure Studies 23 (2): 159 - 175 (slightly odd methodology but some good discussion of the ways in which social divisions are embodied in leisure practices like running).
Bennett, T., Savage, M., Silva, E., Warde, A., Gayo-Cal, M., Wright, D.  (2009) Culture, Class Distinction, London: Routledge (massive empirical study testing Bourdieu on modern Britain. Too empirical for me -- loads of petty findings with no attempt to test Bourdieu on reproduction. Turner is a better and quicker read  on the same themes)
Collins, M. and Buller, J.  (2003) 'Social Exclusion from High - Performance Sport. Are all talented young sports people being given an equal opportunity of reaching the Olympic podium?' in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 27 (4): 420 - 42 (A clever attempt to devise a case-study to examine the effects of social class on youth participation rates in a sport development scheme)
Kirk, J.  (2002) 'Invisible ink. Working-class writing and the end of class', in the European Journal of Cultural Studies, 5 (3): 343 - 362. (Argues for the continuing importance of social class in cultural studies. Analyses some examples of working class writing).
Scatamburlo-D’Annibale, V. and McLaren, P. (2003) The Strategic Centrality of Class in the Politics of “Race” and “Difference” in Cultural Studies ↔ Critical Methodologies,  3(2): 148-175. (Argues class relations construct other important social differences).
Turner, B and Edmonds, J (2002) ‘The Distaste of Taste: Bourdieu, cultural capital, and the Australian postwar elite’, Journal of Consumer Culture 2(2): 219-40. (Nice study testing Bourdieu on the tastes of  the Astralian elite. Finds both generational and cultural factors affect tastes. MUCH more readable than Bennett et al)
Wacquant, L. (2001)  'Whores, Slaves and Stallions: Languages of Exploitation and Accommodation among Boxers', in Body and Society, Vol 7 (2 - 3): 181 - 94. (More on professional boxers, especially how they reconcile themselves to exploitation).
Wilson, T.  (2002)  'The Paradox of Social Class and Sports Involvement: the roles of cultural and economic capital' in  International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 37/1: 5 - 16. (A study of US social class relations to sport, both general participation rates and participation in particular 'prole' sports. Uses US data and notions of economic and cultural capital derived from Bourdieu, and shows the latter is important. NB Gender differences emerge here as insignificant).

Virtual Leisure
Burgess, M., Dill, K., Stermer, S., Burgess, S., Brown, B. (2011) 'Playing With Prejudice: The Prevalence and Consequences of Racial Stereotypes in Video Games'.  Media Psychology, 14: 289-311. (usual careful positivist analysis -- shows evidence of stereotypes)
Chesher, C. (1998?)  'Colonising Virtual Reality. Construction of the Discourse of Virtual Reality, 1984 - 1992', in cultronix, Vol 1, No 1  [online] http://eserver.org/cultronix/chesher/ (A good sceptical account of the emergence of discourses about VR, which are more important in its success and popularity than the technology itself. Combinations of economic, technological and cultural/ideological impulses are detailed, and claims questioned)
Griffiths, M, Davies, M., Chappell, D.  (2004)  'On-line computer gaming: a comparison of adolescent and adult gamers', in Journal of Adolescence, Vol 27: 87 - 96. (This study pursues a particular kind of game -- multi-player online -- and gathers some basic demographics about players. They seem committed, maybe even addicted).
Kibby, M and Costello, B. (2001)  'Between the Image and the Act: Interactive Sex Entertainment on the Internet', in Sexualities, Vol 4  (3): 353 - 69.(Very interesting account of video conferencing technology used to construct interactive 'sex entertainment' -- which is more experimental and liberating than the usual pornographic commodities).
Marshall, J  (2003)  'The Sexual Life of Cyber-Savants', in The Australian Journal of Anthropology, Vol 15, No 2: 229 - 48. (Account of the contradictions and pleasures, the interaction of fantasy and authenticity and of offline and online worlds in 'netsex' via interaction in a MOO).
Miah, A. (2000)  'Virtually nothing: re evaluating the significance of cyberspace', in  Leisure Studies, 19 (3): 211 - 24. (Good sceptical account of the ties between ordinary and virtual reality. Includes an account of LambdaMOO).
Thomsen, S., Straubhaar J., Bolyard, D. (1998)  'Ethnomethodology and the Study of Online Communities: Exploring the Cyber Streets', a paper presented to IRIS'98  (Internet Research and Information for Social Sciences) [online] http://www.sosig.ac.uk/iriss/welcome.html (Explores some issues about how to research online communities, and adapts techniques from ethnography and ethnomethodology).
Young, R  (2002)  'Sexuality and the Internet', in Science as Culture, Vol 11, 2: 215 - 233. (Uses Freudian theory to warn against 'part-object relations' likely to develop on the Net).

Visitor Interpretation
Busby, G.  (c 2004)  'Representations of Cornwall in Fiction: the influence on tourism',  [online] http://www.poldark.org.uk/papers.html
Carr, D. (2001)  'A Museum is an Open Work', in International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol. 7, 2: 173 - 83. (An enthusiastic demonstration of what a high-powered intellectual museum visitor can make of the experience).
MacCannell, D  (2001) 'Tourist agency', in Tourist Studies, Vol 1 (1): 23 - 37. (Critique of Urry on the gaze -- bit exaggerated. Advocates a critical commentating capacity for tourists as a way to combat domination by the gaze, guidebooks, travel writing etc).
Masberg, B and Silverman, L.  (1996)  'Visitor Experiences at Heritage Sites: A Phenomenological Approach', in Journal of Travel Research 34: 20 -- 25.(Good idea but data managed a bit too enthusiastically?

Work-Leisure Relationships
Anteby, M.  (2003)  'The  "Moralities"  of Poaching. Manufacturing personal artefacts on the factory floor', Ethnography 4 (2): 217 -- 39. (A useful study of 'poaching' as an example of the relations between offical and unofficial work (= 'serious leisure'?)
Hartley, J (2004)  'The "value chain of meaning"  and the new economy', in International Journal of Cultural Studies  7 (1): 129 - 141. (Brief speculative piece about value chains in (post)modern business and media -- and everywhere else --permitting cultural studies to have a business output)
Lewis, S.  (2003)  'The integration of paid work and the rest of life. Is post industrial work the new leisure?' , in Leisure Studies, 22: 343 - 55. (A study based on enthusiastic accountants who work long hours. There are too many constraints for additional work to qualify as leisure).
Murphy, P  (2005)  'Knowledge Capitalism', in Thesis Eleven, May: 36 - 62  (Tedious management-speak stuff with all the ussual cliches, reductionisms and wild generalizations -- very good example of the genre)
Stebbins, R.  (2000)  'The Extraprofessional Life: Leisure, Retirement and Unemployment', in Current Sociology, 48(1): 1 -- 18. ( A useful summary of 'flow'  and 'serious leisure', and a commentary on 'extension patterns' affecting professionals).
Williams, C .(2002)  'A critical evaluation of the commodification thesis', in The Sociological Review [no volume or issue numbers in this electronic copy] 525 - 42. (A discussion of the role of unpaid and voluntary work and its continued importance. Issues raised for the work-leisure distinction and for post-fordist economies)

Youth Cultures
Bennett, A  (2002)  'Researching youth culture and popular music: a methodological critique', in British Journal of Sociology, Vol 53, 3: 451 - 66. (One of the critiques is of gramscian work on music and youth culture as offering only a limited ethnographic understanding. Later work, including Thornton and Malbon is equally flawed methodologically).
Brake, M (1980, 1985) Sociology of Youth Cultures, Comparative Youth Cultures. Brief notes on an early collection setting out the approaches, before CCCS dominated everything.
Gantz, W., Zheng, W., Bryant,  P., and Potter, R (2006) ‘Sports Versus All Comers: Comparing TV Sports Fans With Fans of Other Programming Genres’, in Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 50(1): 95—118.(Thorough psychological study of student fans and their viewing patterns, comparing sports fans and fans of other genres. Gender emerges as an important variable)
Giulianotti, R.  (2002)  'Supporters, Followers, Fans, and Flâneurs', in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, Vol 26, No 1: 25 - 46. (Very interesting attempt to identify and classify new types of football supporters as football becomes 'hypercommodified').
McRobbie, A and Thornton, S.  (1995)  'Rethinking  "moral panic"  for multi-mediated social worlds', in British Journal of Sociology, Vol 46, No 4: 559 - 574. (An excellent critique of classic conceptions of moral panics in understanding youth cultures. Some application to raves. Partly answered by Critcher).
Peukert, D.  (1987) Inside Nazi Germany. Conformity, Opposition and Racism in Everyday Life, London: Batsford Ltd  (A chapter from this famous study of life under fasicsm, focusing on the youth subcultures that emerged and resisted. Very good account of hegemony in fascism)
Roberts, K.  (1997) 'Same activities, different meanings: British youth cultures in the 1990s', in Leisure Studies, 16,1: 1-- 16. (Discusses whether youth cultures are more fluid and whether identities are based on them. Uses some survey data to raise doubts).
Stahl, G.  (1999)  'Still  "Winning Space?": Updating Subcultural Theory', in In[ ]visible Culture, an electronic journal for visual studies [online]  http://www.rochester.edu/in_visible_culture/issue2/stahl.htm (A thorough critique of CCCS work on youth subcultures and a suggested alternative based on work like Thornton,  Bourdieu and cultural geographical understandings of the global).
Wilkins, A.  (2004) ' "So Full of Myself as a Chick" Goth Women, Sexual Independence, and Gender Egalitarianism', in Gender and Society, 18 (3): 328 -- 49. (An  account of the insights and limitations of Goth versions of sexual activism as challenges to patriarchy).


back to files