Ennen, E.  (2000)  'The Meaning of Heritage According to Connoisseurs, Rejecters and Take-it-or-leavers in Historic City Centres: two Dutch cities experienced', in International Journal of Heritage Studies, 6, 4: 331 - 349.

 [An unusual study in several respects: it focuses on city centre heritage; examines the value of these sites for residents rather than visitors; and pursues a quantitative study to test theoretical possibilities with factor analysis].

Earlier theoretical work suggests that residents will take different stances towards the listed buildings they encounter in their city centres. Knowledge of the stances and the lifestyles that they imply will have policy implications.

Relationship with the city for residents can be described as  'being "tied to" and [having] "solidarity with" the city centre' (332). People can feel tied to city centres in both positive and negative ways. Ties can be measured by length of residence, type of housing, access to facilities, employment, and certain  'emotional and aesthetic considerations' (333). Residents may be consciously or unconsciously able to choose where they live according to these qualities -- some will want to identify with the city centre, developing  'solidarity', while others will simply feel they have no alternative, or that the city centre is simply their home.

The combinations lead to the three types in the title [described further page 334]. Connoisseurs are more attracted by cultural facilities, for example, while take-it-or-leavers  are more neutral  [and instrumental], while rejecters have little interest in the culture of the city and wish to live elsewhere. The first two categories sometimes find themselves with dilemmas such us wanting to preserve the city environment, but also to find somewhere to park.

Heritage plays a part in the cultural environment of the city, but its valuation  'is generally found to correlate strongly with such background variables as education and social status' (335). However, some actual heritage objects require more interpretation and understanding than others --  'The complexity of monuments is lower than the complexity of museums, for instance' (335). In general, historic buildings in city centres might require less skill in interpretation and thus education, since familiarity from residents may help provide insight.

In general, meanings for the user can be: economic (increasing tourists can annoy residents, but heritage policies can also increase the value of housing investment); social psychological  (where historic cities can improve well-being and help generate positive experiences, especially if encouraged by local authorities); or political  (related to national policies concerned with preserving national identities). Authorities tend to intervene in all these areas and should manage any tensions [well yes -- but how exactly -- the recommendation seems to be lots of communication with stakeholders etc]

The classification of resident types can be tested by gaining empirical data into Dutch cities, which can then be subject to cluster analysis. Some clarification  results
(a) Connoisseurs actually fall into two subtypes -- historic and consuming (and the characteristic occupational, demographic and economic characteristics of this type are provided, together with data on their housing type and matters such as whether they own a car).
(b) Rejecters also fall into two clusters, and include a group such as scholars or students, or childless employees.
(c) Take-it-or-leavers are also subdivided according to their characteristic daily activities -- such as whether they are retired.
(d) The characteristics of different subtypes varies between the two Dutch cities studied -- in Alkmaar, for example there are fewer students generally, and participation rates in civic activities also vary.

Subsequent interviews finally led to the construction of an attitude scale in order to try to pin down perceived advantages and disadvantages [to go beyond the simple three categories?]. Five major components were identified, and they seemed common to people's views in both Dutch cities. Responses were also tested to see if they corresponded to the three theoretical types identified in the title  [using a statistical test of association -- ANOVA. In general, there were significant differences between the {main?}clusters, showing some general validity for the types ]. The full data are presented on page 344.

Different components show different levels of agreement between the cities and between the types -- for example, a set of attitudes defining  'heritage, sense of place and cultural identity' did show significant differences between connoisseurs and other types. [Other sets are summarised as  'heritage and the willingness to pay... heritage sense of place and cultural identity... indirect costs and benefits of heritage... the city centre and car traffic'. Each set contains individual items such as an invitation to agree or disagree with statements such as  'A historic centre is too traditional to live in' (344)].

Overall, policy implications are complex, since  'there are many locally bounded differences' (348). The interests of many parties have to be weighed, and should include the views of residents. The three types established from theory could be used to organise discussion

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